From scratches to burns: features of treatment of various types of wounds
Cuts, abrasions, scratches and burns: how often have you had to deal with these troubles and lose time to choose the right treatment methods. How to actually provide medical care for various types of wounds and not get lost in the variety of patches and bandages – in the material Passion.ru.
Algorithm for wound care
As banal as it may sound, before touching the wound and resorting to its treatment, you must carefully wash your hands with soap. Unfortunately, many of us, when faced with the stress of providing first aid, forget about this simple and very important step
Stopping the bleeding
If you have a bleeding wound, don’t panic! Most small cuts and abrasions stop bleeding quickly enough. Moreover, the blood helps to self-clean the wound.
Independently, this process can be stopped by clamping the wound with a sterile bandage, gauze or a special tampon.
If blood soaks the bandage, apply another one directly on top of the old one without removing it, otherwise you may accidentally open the wound and cause new bleeding.
Carefully wash the wound
The best way to clean the wound and prevent infection is to thoroughly wash it with cool tap water for at least 5 minutes. As paradoxical as it may sound, the use of antiseptics such as hydrogen peroxide and rubbing alcohol to clean the wound can cause a serious burn to already damaged skin and slow down the healing process.
Gently clean the surface around the wound with soap solution and remove any visible dirt or splinters with pre-disinfected tweezers. Then gently Pat the skin with a dry clean towel.
Applying an antibiotic
Antibacterial creams and ointments not only protect the wound from infection, but also keep it moist, preventing it from drying out. The ointment should be applied in a thin layer. If a rash appears after applying the antibiotic, then its use should be discontinued.
Apply a bandage
After a cut or graze, our body starts an instant healing process. White blood cells begin to attack the infection-causing bacteria. Platelets and fibrin create a jelly-like clot over the wound, which is soon covered with a protective crust. To speed up the healing process, it is important to keep this crust intact by protecting it with a plaster or bandage.
The type of patch or dressing, as well as the method of applying them, will depend on the nature and location of the wound.
Scratches and cuts on the face
Small wounds on the face are not as bad as they may seem at first glance. Because of the abundance of blood vessels, they can bleed profusely. However, do not worry, after you stop the bleeding, you will need either a very thin band-aid, or you will be able to do without a band-aid at all. However, in some cases, in order to avoid infection or improper scarring of tissues, it is better to consult a specialist for sutures. You may need them if you have a cut that is too deep or too long, more than an inch and a half, or if the wound is caused by a jagged object.
Cuts on the hands and feet
Hands and feet are more susceptible to contamination than other parts of the body, so even small cuts and wounds in these areas need to be covered. For this purpose, it is best to use bactericidal plasters, which are most often produced in the form of strips. They usually have a cloth or gauze surface impregnated with an antibacterial component. In addition to its antiseptic effect, these patches will help protect the wound from rubbing with socks or shoes.
It is advisable to change the bactericidal ones every day, as well as in case of getting wet or contamination. If you have deep cuts or stab wounds, contact a professional for help.
Cuts and scratches on the knuckles, fingers, and heels
Due to their excessive mobility, wounds on the knuckles and fingers are not always easy to treat. Whereas in such open places, the infection is easiest to get into the wound. Hourglass-shaped or h-shaped patches wrap easily around the tip of your finger, and hold securely on your knuckles.
Scratches and abrasions on the body
If your scratches and abrasions are located on the area of the body that will come into contact with clothing, it is best to seal it with a band-aid. In case of damage, the uncovered crust formed on the scratch during healing can become a gateway for infection. Cellulose-based patches are best for this purpose. They do not irritate the skin, do not leave traces, are hypoallergenic and easily peel off. Despite the fact that cellulose patches can stay on the skin for up to 7 days, doctors recommend changing them daily to avoid infection.
Some people have an increased sensitivity to the adhesive surface of the patch or latex.Therefore, if the place where the patch is attached begins to itch, become covered with small bubbles or burn, you may be allergic to one of the components of the adhesive tape. For sensitive skin, just use a bandage instead of a band-aid.
Abrasions on the knees and elbows
Applying a patch or bandage to the skin of your elbows or knees can be extremely uncomfortable. For this purpose, large adhesive plasters with “wings” based on polymer fiber are the best choice. They have a reliable fixation and elasticity, which allows them to ” hug ” the joint at the bend, without causing discomfort. If you want to save time, then an alternative to the patch can be a liquid medical glue. It not only stops bleeding, but also protects the wound from dirt and water. In contrast to the usual band-aid, medical glue has a moisture-resistant effect. Its film reliably covers the wound, and does not cause allergies.
In case of serious burns – on the face, hands, feet, genitals, or when the area of the burned surface is more than 5 cm, it is necessary to seek medical help as soon as possible.
To treat a small burn, cool the damaged area under a stream of cool water. With this active cooling, the skin ceases to retain heat, thereby preventing the spread of the burn. However, this method will only be effective in the first 20 minutes after the injury. Immersion under a stream of cold water should be for 20 minutes, and the water temperature is about 15 degrees. Do not use ice water in any case, as it may aggravate an existing burn and cause additional damage.
After the skin finally cools down, wipe the burn with a soap solution and apply a thin layer of antibacterial ointment.
In case of blisters, to protect the burn surface, apply a sterile, non-adhering gauze bandage designed specifically for burns. This bandage absorbs well the liquid from the wound and protects it from external infections. Today, it is freely available to buy in almost any pharmacy.
Never lubricate the burn with oil or fat, as is sometimes recommended in folk medicine, and even more so do not sprinkle it with powder.
Applying oil or ice to the burn instead of helping will have the opposite effect and lead to subsequent skin damage.